the history of the australian flag

Also, the field was red for Civil use, with the blue ensign being reserved for Government use only. 1996. [14], Under the Flags Act, the Australian National Flag must meet the following specifications:[15][16], The location of the stars is as follows:[16], The outer diameter of the Commonwealth Star is ​3⁄20 of the flag's width, while that of the stars in the Southern Cross is ​1⁄14 of the flag's width, except for Epsilon, for which the fraction is ​1⁄24. Students salute big flag'. 65", "Commercial use of the Australian National Flag", "Commercial Use of the Australian National Flag", Bills Digest No. [33] The most popular "national" flag of the period was the 1831 Federation Flag, also designed by Nicholson. [29] In 2002, the leader of the National Party, John Anderson, proposed to introduce laws banning desecration of the Australian flag, a call that attracted support from some parliamentarians both in his own party and the senior Coalition partner, the Liberal Party. Historyplex will enlighten you with some interesting facts of this flag, its history, and what it symbolizes. According to a breakdown of the figures, 41% said they were "strongly" opposed, more than favoured change overall. The coming Australian Commonwealth will need a Flag, and many efforts are already being made to evolve a graceful, characteristic, and effective national symbol a flag that shall at once express kinship with the Empire and yet be characteristic of the new and great political entity which has come into existence. Despite this, there remained confusion until the Flags Act 1953 declared the Blue Ensign to be the national flag and the Red Ensign the flag of the Australian mercantile marine. 'Special day flagged by Central students'. History of the Flag. At the time, the British had separated Australia into six separate colonies. The first such attempt was the National Colonial Flag created in 1823–1824 by Captains John Nicholson and John Bingle. Flags in any locality may be flown at half-mast on the death of a notable local citizen or on the day, or part of the day, of their funeral. John Vaughan is an historian and a prominent Australian vexillographer (one who studies the heritage of flags). and Australian Customs Flag,[104] eight Vice-Regal flags and nine state and territory flags that are recognised as official flags through other means.[105]. But Waitangi Day 2010 saw the first official recognition of the national Māori flag, which flew alongside the New Zealand flag on the Auckland Harbour Bridge, Parliament, and … The five joint winners came from different parts of the community and they shared a £200 prize. Australia's first Prime Minister Rt. [22], When the flag is flown at half-mast, it should be recognisably at half-mast—for example, a third of the way down from the top of the pole. Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No 18, 23 March 1934. [6][10] Another rationale for the change was to match the star used on the Coat of Arms, which was created in the same year. [103], In addition to the seven flags declared under the Flags Act, there are two additional Commonwealth flags, the Australian Civil Aviation Ensign Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 18 September 2001, 30853 (Paul Neville). The ship had been sailing without a flag, a violation of British navigation laws. Australia's national flag was original designed with a six-pointed Commonwealth Star and was approved in 1901 from entries in a competition held following Federation. [Photos courtesy of John Vaughan. The proportion of the Australian flag is 1:2. It was later used on Remembrance Day in 2003 for the opening of the Australian War Memorial in Hyde Park in London.[86]. [22], The National Flag must always be flown in a position superior to that of any other flag or ensign when flown in Australia or on Australian territory, and it should always be flown aloft and free. Following the establishment of permanent British sovereign possession of the lands of Tasmania. Following this, the Government of Australia granted the Aboriginal Flag the ‘Flag of Australia’ status in 1995, under the Flags Act 1953, which also saw Thomas seek legal recognition for the flag’s design and ownership.However, due to administrative oversight the proclamation of 1995 was not lodged, which caused the flag to expire on 1 January 2008. In 1908, a seventh point was added to symbolise the Territory of Papua, and any future territories. [50] A colourised version of a photograph held by the Australian War Memorial of the Armistice Day celebrations in Sydney's Martin Place, 11 November 1918, reveals both ensigns being displayed by the assembled crowd. Design of the flag 2. The Royal Australian Navy has had its own flag from 1 March 1967. However, no legislative action has ever been taken to determine the precise form of the flag or the circumstances of its use, and this bill has been brought down to produce that result."[74]. [22] The flag should not be displayed upside down under any circumstances, not even to express a situation of distress. It wasn′t until late 1902 that King Edward VII formally notified the Australian Government of the approval, and this approval was finally Gazetted on 20 February 1903. [40], As the design was basically the Victorian flag with a star added, many critics in both the Federal Government and the New South Wales government objected to the chosen flag for being "too Victorian". On 6 October 1983, Sir Colin Hines OBE, a prominent Returned Serviceman, launched the Australian National Flag Association (ANFA) and invited John to be a member of his team. Australia's flag features three primary components namely the Commonwealth Star, the Southern Cross, and the Union Flag. The History of the Irish Flag - Duration: 7:39. The flag was designed in 1971 by Harold Thomas, a Luritja man from central … Later governments, that of Chris Watson in 1904 and Andrew Fisher in 1910, were also unhappy with the design, wanting something "more distinctive" and more "indicative of Australian unity. [88][89][90][91][92][93][94], Under Section 5 of the Flags Act 1953, the Governor-General may proclaim flags other than the National Flag and the Red Ensign as flags or ensigns of Australia. [95] The Air Force and the Navy flew the appropriate British ensigns (the White Ensign and the Royal Air Force Ensign) until the adoption of similar ensigns based on the Australian National Flag in 1948 and 1967 respectively. The designs were judged on seven criteria: loyalty to the Empire, Federation, history, heraldry, distinctiveness, utility and cost of manufacture. [77] The Union Flag was still regarded as the National flag by many Australians well into the 1970s, which inspired Arthur Smout's campaign from 1968 to 1982 to encourage Australians to give the Australian flag precedence. Like any other flag the Australian flag is full of symbolism and stirs pride in Australians, young and old alike. Symbols within the Australian Flag design. To this day the Aboriginal flag provokes both pride and tension within Australian society. For this reason, the flags should be treated with respect and dignity at all times. Following this, the Government of Australia granted the Aboriginal Flag the ‘Flag of Australia’ status in 1995, under the Flags Act 1953, which also saw Thomas seek legal recognition for the flag’s design and ownership.However, due to administrative oversight the proclamation of 1995 was not lodged, which caused the flag to expire on 1 January 2008. From 1831 until as late as the 1920s there was a somewhat similar design known as the Australian Federation Flag, with a blue cross and five white stars. The Australian Flag came into being after the the federation of the Australian States into the Commonwealth of Australian on 1 January, 1901. [4] A slightly different design was approved by King Edward VII in 1903. John Vaughan michael pachi Natalie Peters. The Commonwealth Star represents the Federation of States as six points and their unity as the seventh point. Annelie Hailes, 'Huge flag for a big country'. [111], The Coalition government under John Howard in 1996 formally recognised the commemoration of Australian National Flag Day, in 1998 sponsored an amendment to the Flags Act to require any changes to the national flag design to be passed at a plebiscite along the same lines of the 1977 national song poll, in 2002 supplied ANFA's promotional video free to all primary schools and in 2004 required all schools receiving federal funds to fly the Australian flag. This was largely due to the Commonwealth government and flag suppliers restricting sales of the blue ensign to the general public. Note that the blue was lighter then than now and that the flag was closer to square. The Australian National Flag Association has a great section on Australian Flag history, find out more on their website. [33] This was the original Union Flag introduced in 1606 that did not include the Saint Patrick's Saltire, included from 1801 after the Acts of Union 1801. But what about the Australian national flag? At the time, the Union Flag did not have Saint Patrick’s Saltire. [35] One of these was submitted by an unnamed governor of a colony. The Australian Aboriginal Flag was designed by artist Harold Thomas (a Luritja/Wompei) man and was first flown at Victoria Square in Adelaide, SA, on National Aborigines Day, 12 July 1971. In 1901, the Commonwealth Government sanctioned the publication Review of R… AUSTRIA-HUNGARY Flag Map SPEEDART (17 states) | Flag Maps #1 - Duration: 3:40. The National Australian Flag is most often flown by the general public on celebrated days of Australian history such as Australia Day (January 26) or on days of remembrance such as ANZAC Day (April 25). Benalla Printing have also compiled an informative guide to the history of the Australian Flag, which is shown in the image below. The competition attracted 32 823 entries. [78], By the mid-1980s, the Commonwealth Government no longer reminded Australians they had the right to fly the Union Flag alongside the National Flag or provided illustrations of how to correctly display them together. History of the flag 3. The Australian Aboriginal flag represents the Aboriginal people of Australia. Construction Details 4. However, Australia remains a member of the Commonwealth and, as such, has chosen to retain the British Union Flag in the national flag. [24] The British Blue Ensign can be flown on an Australian owned ship instead of the Australian Flag if the owner has a warrant valid under British law. [58] The Red Ensign continues to be paraded on Anzac Day in recognition of its historical significance. They were Ivor Evans, a fourteen-year-old schoolboy from Melbourne; Leslie John Hawkins, a teenager apprenticed to an optician from Sydney; Egbert John Nuttall, an architect from Melbourne; Annie Dorrington, an artist from Perth; and William Stevens, a ship's officer from Auckland, New Zealand. Australian flag consisting of a blue field (background) with the Union Jack in the canton and, at the fly end, a yellow disk bearing a black swan. It was designed by Aboriginal artist Harold Thomas, during the land rights movement in the early 1970s. What Does The Flag of Australia Look Like? It is the first flag to be called 'the Australian Flag' and it was flown as an act of rebellion against unjust mining taxes. It is often flown together with the national flag and with the Torres Strait Islander Flag, which is also an officially proclaimed flag.. This flag was not a replica of the original flag, on which the Commonwealth Star had only six points, but was a current Australian National Flag with a seven pointed Commonwealth Star. The Australian Aboriginal Flag represents Aboriginal Australians.It is one of the officially proclaimed flags of Australia, and holds special legal and political status. There were 32,823 entries and five nearly-identical entries were awarded equal first. [33] The oldest known flag to show the stars arranged as they are seen in the sky is the Anti-Transportation League Flag, which is similar in design to the present National Flag. Sarah Harvey, 'Now that’s a flag! Section 8 ensures that the 'right or privilege' of a person to fly the Union Flag is not affected by the Act. Like any other flag the Australian flag is full of symbolism and stirs pride in Australians, young and old alike. This was changed in 1981 to feature a red kangaroo. The Governor-General of Australia also has a flag which is flown from his or her official house and from his or her car. As part of Ausflag′s contribution to informed debate about the Australian national flag, we have compiled what we believe to be one of the most exhaustive information databases on Australia′s flags of the past and present. Flying the Uni… 7:39. However, an Admiralty Warrant was issued on 5 December 1938, authorising these vessels to fly the Australian Red Ensign. This status was formalised on 14 February 1954, when Queen Elizabeth II gave Royal Assent to the Flags Act 1953, which had been passed two months earlier. Prime Minister Edmund Barton announced in the Commonwealth Gazette that King Edward VII had officially approved the design as the flag of Australia on 11 February 1903. The Royal Australian Air Force got its own flag in 1949. The five winners received £40 each. The design adopted was submitted to His Majesty King Edward VII, and he was pleased to approve of it as the Australian flag in 1902. There have been several attempts to make desecration of the Australian flag a crime. [97], In 1995, the Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag were also appointed flags of Australia. Replace the Union Jack with the Aboriginal Flag, Annie Dorrington, Artist, Perth (1866-1926), Ivor Evans, Student, Haymarket, Melbourne (1888-1960), Leslie Hawkins, Student, Leichhardt, Sydney (1883-1966), Egbert Nuttall, Architect, Prahran, Melbourne (1866-1963). The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers on 29th Oct 1914. The Europeans settled in the country on January 26, 1788. That bastard flag is a true symbol of the bastard state of Australian opinion. [75][76] The monarch's Assent was timed to coincide with the Queen's visit to the country and came after she had opened the new session of Parliament. Flying the Uni… The five joint winners came from different parts of the community and they shared a £200 prize. On the Australian flag, the cluster of five stars comprises the constellation of the Southern Cross, which is Australia's geographical location within the Southern Hemisphere. [48], The competition-winning designs were submitted to the British Colonial Secretary in 1902. The flag of Australia has a blue background. On 3 September 1901, the Prime Minister announced the five joint winners of the competition and the key elements of their designs were used to create the new flag … Natalie Peters, Michael Pachi. Farr, M. 17 September 2003. The original flag was slightly different to its present day form (which started in 1908), in that each star on the original flag had a unique number of points. The flag was originally designed for the land rights movement, and it became a symbol of the Aboriginal people of Australia.. New aircraft entered the fleet as well – the Avro Lancastrian (initially modified Lancaster bombers from war service) and later the Douglas DC4. Although the flag was designed by Nicholson in 1831, it did not become widely popular until the latter part of the century, when calls for federation began to grow louder. This change was officially gazetted on 23 February 1903. The Australian flag is a national symbol representing Australian identity and pride. The Australian flag is a relic of our racist past, and we haven't bothered to reclaim it. Our present flag dates from only 1953. [42] They wanted the Australian Federation Flag, and Prime Minister Barton, who had been promoting the Federation Flag, submitted this flag along with that chosen by the judges to the Admiralty for final approval. In 1996, the Governor-General, Sir William Deane, issued a proclamation recognising the annual commemoration of Australian National Flag Day, to be held on 3 September. It was flown at the 1907 State Premiers conference in Melbourne and during the 1927 visit to Australia of the Duke and Duchess of York, the future King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. The joint winning entries were all remarkably similar to what the Australian flag looks like today. We have been careful to present all relevant information about the history of each flag, relying upon authoritative written sources and historical records wherever possible (see our references). [85] These included the opening of new parliamentary terms and when visiting heads of state arrive. The first two were the Royal Australian Navy Ensign and the Royal Australian Air Force Ensign, the flags used by the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. It is the second version post 1801 that is depicted on the Australian Flag. The Commonwealth Star does not have any official relation to Beta Centauri, despite the latter's brightness and location in the sky; however, the 1870 version of the flag of South Australia featured the "pointer" stars, Alpha and Beta Centauri. Australian Ensigns in Current Use 6. [33] The differences were that there was no Commonwealth Star, while the components of the Southern Cross are depicted with eight points and in gold. [9] The majority of designs incorporated the Union Flag and the Southern Cross, but native animals were also popular, including one that depicted a variety of indigenous animals playing cricket. 58/08. You can expect to see the flag a good few times during your holiday to Australia so here are a few fun facts for you to know: In 1901 Australian Prime Minister, the RT Hon Sir Edmund Barton, announced an international competition to design a flag for the nation. [2] The dimensions were formally gazetted in 1934,[5] and in 1954 the flag became recognised by, and legally defined in, the Flags Act 1953, as the "Australian National Flag". [82] On Flag Day, ceremonies are held in schools, major centres, and the Governor-General, Governors and some politicians attend or release statements to the media. The flag has been at the centre of protests and other monumental occasions in recent history. On 3 September 1901, the Prime Minister announced the five joint winners of the competition and the key elements of their designs were used to create the new flag … On 18 September 2001 during the centenary of federation the federal member for Hinkler, Paul Neville, would request of the speaker that: The parliament house centenary flag was subsequently entrusted to the Australian Flag Society and has been paraded at schools to mark Australian National Flag Day on a tour of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Queensland. Lieutenant James Cook was the first to bring the Union Flag onto Australiansoil at Botany Bay on April 29, 1770. On the centenary of the first flying of the flag, 3 September 2001, the Australian National Flag Association presented the Prime Minister with a flag intended to replace the missing original flag. Guidelines for flying the flag are laid out in the 1953 Flags Act and in a pamphlet entitled "The Australian National Flag", which is infrequently published by the Australian Government. Until this time, Australia used Britain's flag, the Union Jack. Australia′s first flag was the Union Flag (used by Captain Cook in 1770 and Captain Phillip in 1788). Aboriginal flag design. The iconic symbols of Australia include the Sydney Opera House, the boomerang, the kangaroo and the emu. "[46], On 3 September 1901, the new Australian flag flew for the first time from the dome of the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne. These flags are important symbols that represent the country’s origins and identity. Flag History. [34] The competition conducted by the Review of Reviews for Australasia—a Melbourne-based publication—later that year thought such a restriction seemed unwise, despite observing that designs without these emblems were unlikely to be successful;[34] nonetheless, it suggested that entries incorporate the two elements in their design. Construction Details 4. GN 26, 2 July 2008. The Australian Ensign will accordingly be flown at all flag stations throughout the Commonwealth. [36] The differences to the current flag were the six-pointed Commonwealth Star, while the components stars in the Southern Cross had different numbers of points, with more if the real star was brighter. This flag was only briefly in usage, as two years after the formation of the Anti-Transportation League in 1851, the colonial authorities decided to stop the intake of convicts, so the ATL ceased its activities. Service began first to Manila and Tokyo, soon followed by Hong Kong. Recognises and celebrates the centenary of the Australian National Flag which occurs on 3 September this year. Australian Flag 1901 – Defaced British Red Ensign Australia's national flag was original designed with a six-pointed Commonwealth Star and was approved in 1901 from entries in a competition held following Federation. Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 20 November 1953, 367, (Bob Menzies). Variants 5. However, the flag still had no legal status beyond the original British Admiralty authorisations which only related to use at sea. [33] This flag consisted of a red cross on a white background, with an eight-point star on each of the four limbs of the cross, while incorporating a Union Flag in the canton. History of Australia Flag The Australian flag has a large white seven pointed star (the star of federation) under the middle of the Union Jack. [6] The stars are named after the first five letters of the Greek alphabet, in decreasing order of brightness in the sky. This looks like the national flag but has a white background with blue stars, called the Australian White Ensign. The flag’s unique style (with a six-pointed Earth Star) was chosen in 1901 from records in a competition held following Federation, and was first traveled in Victoria on 3 Sept 1901, the date announced as Australia National Flag Day. For this reason the Collingwood Football Club had to reverse its logo, which previously featured the flag until a logo refresh at the end of 2017. [60], As a result of the declaration of 3 September as Merchant Navy Day in 2008, the Red Ensign can be flown on land alongside the Australian national flag on this occasion as a matter of protocol. Two flags should not be flown from the same flagpole. [115][note 1] A 2010 Morgan Poll that asked: "Do you think Australia should have a new design for our National Flag?" The Imperial Parliament in the United Kingdom passed the Colonial Naval Defence Act. This act empowered Australian colonies to provide, maintain and use vessels of war. The adoption of the winning flag design was never debated in the Australian Parliament - it was sent to the Imperial Authorities in England to be approved. [17] The Australian Government's Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers also gives CMYK and RGB specifications for depicting the flag in print and on screen respectively. [61], The Blue Ensign replaced the Union Jack at the Olympic Games at St Louis in 1904. five white stars (representing the Southern Cross) in the half of the flag further from the staff. The flag's original design (with a six-pointed Commonwealth Star) was chosen in 1901 from entries in a competition held following Federation, and was first flown in Melbourne on 3 September 1901,[3] the date proclaimed as Australian National Flag Day. The flag, known as the Colonial National Flag, consisted of a white cloth with the red cross of St. George, which at each end carried a white star that should be available for the Southern Cross. The Australian flag uses three prominent symbols: Crux, the Union Jack and the Commonwealth Star. There are other official flags representing Australia, its people and core functions of government. [99] Some indigenous people, such as the flag's designer Harold Thomas, felt that the government was appropriating their flag,[99] saying it "doesn't need any more recognition". It consists of a "federation star" on a blue field representing the Australian night sky shared through the Australian rich history and a golden chevron representing a boomerang pointing to a white field representing the bright future, the daybreak. In 1901 Australia’s first Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Sir Edmund Barton, announced an international competition to design a flag for the new Commonwealth of Australia. Honours the ideals for which our national flag stands including our history, geography and unity as a federated nation. The inaugural event was held under the auspices of the New South Wales branch of the Australian National Flag Association to commemorate the anniversary of the flag being first flown in 1901. Design of the flag 2. Finally, more than 53 years after the first design was hoisted, Australia had an official national flag. [36] Five almost identical entries were chosen as the winning design, and the designers shared the £200 (2009: $25,000) prize money. Australia has three flags: the Australian National Flag, the Aboriginal Flag, and the Torres Strait Islander Flag. [45][71], In 1940 the Victorian government passed legislation allowing schools to purchase Blue Ensigns,[72] which in turn allowed its use by private citizens. Due to an administrative oversight they were not, and the proclamations were automatically repealed. [55], In the 1940s, the federal government began to encourage public use of the blue ensign. You can expect to see the flag a good few times during your holiday to Australia so here are a few fun facts for you to know: In 1901 Australian Prime Minister, the RT Hon Sir Edmund Barton, announced an international competition to design a flag for the nation. Special Flag Flying Days 8. The flag's width is the measurement of the hoist edge of the flag (the distance from top to bottom). Minds move slowly: and Australia is still Britain's little boy. A collection of little known facts on the history and design of the Australian flag, like, did you know the design was copied from the New Zealand flag? The red colour in the ensign part of the Australian flag (Pantone 185C, Hex: #FF0000) is actually a shade lighter, then from the British flag (Pantone 186C, Hex: #C8102E) from where it originated. The flag has a special headband,[84] including a cardinal red stripe and the inscription, The Centenary Flag. Before 1901, what is now Australia was six separate British colonies. [79], In 1998, the Flags Act was amended to provide that any change to the national flag must be approved by a plebiscite which must offer the existing flag alongside any alternative designs. Five flags have been appointed in this manner. Special Flag Flying Days 8. 11th Nov 1918 This bill sought to make it "a criminal offence to wilfully destroy or otherwise mutilate the Flag in circumstances where a reasonable person would infer that the destruction or mutilation is intended publicly to express contempt or disrespect for the Flag or the Australian Nation.

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